Name: Amla ( अमला )

Description: 
Botanical name : EMBLICA OFFICINALIS
Family : EUPHORBIACEAE
SANSKRIT SYNONYMS

Amala, Amalaka, Amalakah, Amraphalam,

Amulki, Amalakam, Amalaki, Dhatri,

Dhatri-phala, Dhatriphalam, Kamu,

Sriphalam, Tisya, Umrita, Vayastha

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES 
Rasa    : Madhur, Amal, Katu, Tikt, Kashay
Guna   : Guru, Ruksha, Sheet
Virya   : Sheeta
PLANT NAME IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES
English     : Indian gooseberry
Hindi        : Awala
Malayalam    : Nellikai, Nelli
Distribution – This species is paleotropical in its distribution occurring in the Indo-Malesia belt, SriLanka and South China. Within India, it is reported to be abundant in the deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh and widely cultivated in the plains of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam and Western Ghats. This species is globally distributed in the Paleotropics. Within India, it is found in the mixed deciduous forests ascending to an altitude of 1350 metres on the hills. It is often cultivated in gardens and homeyards.
PLANT DESCRIPTION 

A small or medium sized, deciduous tree. Leaves subsessile, closely set along the branchlets, distichous, narrowly linear, obtuse, having appearance of pinnate leaves. Flowers greenish-yellow, in axillary fascicles on the leaf bearing branchlets, often on the naked portion below the leaves.
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES 
Plant pacifies vitiated tridosha , Skin diseases, Anti-pyretic, Bdominal disorders, Anti-pyreticabdominal disorders, Respirtory diseases,Relieves hiccoughs

Useful part : Fruits
Research : Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.
Link : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21317655